The Treaty of Sèvres (August 1920) was signed at the end of World War I as a peace treaty between the Allies and the Ottoman Empire. The Sultan accepted it, giving up all claims to non-Turkish territory. However it was not recognized by the nationalist government under Mustafa Kemal Pasha (later known as Ataturk), and therefore it was not ratified. The treaty obliged Turkey to renounce rights over Arab Asia and North Africa, and provided for an independent Armenia, an autonomous Kurdistan, and Greek control over the Aegean islands commanding the Dardanelles. (1)

The Treaty of Sèvres' aim was mainly to partition the Ottoman Empire. The treaty stated that:
-the kingdom of Hijaz was to become independent; the kingdom eventually became to be Saudia Arabia.
-Syria was to become a mandate (2) of France and Palestine.
-Iraq became a mandate of Britain: all oil concession in the region was to be given to the Turkish Petroleum Company (TPC), which was controlled by the British.
-Armenia became an independent nation: this was the first time the Democratic Republic of Armenia was recognized internationally.
-Greece received the land around Smyrna for only five years.

-Eastern Thrace and all Turkish islands in the Aegean except Rhodes and Dodecanese went to Italy.
-One of the main points of the treaty was the plan to establish the ‘Zone of Straits.’ Navigation was to be allowed in
Dardanelles in time of peace and war to all vessels. No act of war could be committed there, and no blockade could occur the area unless otherwise decided by the League of Nations.

-the Ottoman Empire was limited to 50,000 men, restricted the right to air force, and was to only have 7 sloops and 6 torpedo boats.


All terms of the Treaty of Sèvres were overthrown because of the revival of the Turkish nationalist movement. New negotiations took place at Lausanne, Switzerland in August 1922 between the signatories of the Treaty of Sèvres and the USSR, who was excluded from the previous treaty.

By Treaty of Lausanne in July 1923:

-Turkey recovered full sovereign rights over all its territory, and foreign zones of influence and capitulations were abolished. (3)
-The treaty recognized the boundaries of the modern state of Turkey, as well as British possession of Cyprus and Italian possession of the Dodecanese, and the Turkish straits between the Aegean and Black seas were declared open to all shipping. (4)
-Greece returned Eastern Thrace and two Aegean Islands (Imbros and Tenedos) to Turkey
-The Straits remained demilitarized but Turkey gained the right to close them to enemy warships during war.
-Foreign supervision of Turkish finances ended.

The Treaty of Lausanne resulted in the international recognition of Turkey as the
successor state of the Ottoman Empire.

1. "Treaty of Sèvres." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopædia
Britannica Online. 29 Sep. 2009 <>.
2. mandate - A commission from the League of Nations authorizing a member nation to administer a territory., "mandate," in Unabridged (v 1.1). Source location: Random House, Inc. Available: Accessed: September 29, 2009.
3. “Lausanne, Treaty of.The Columbia Encyclopedia. Sixth Edition. 2004.
4. "Treaty of Sèvres." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopædia
Britannica Online. 29 Sep. 2009 <>.