1. Origins and nature of authoritarian and single-party states
Portrait of Mao Zedong
Portrait of Mao Zedong

  • Conditions that produced authoritarian and single party states
  • Emergence of leaders: aims, ideology, support
  • Totalitarianism: the aim and the extent to which it was achieved
2. Establishment of authoritarian and single-party states
  • Methods: force, legal
  • Form of government, (left-and right-wing) ideology
  • Nature, extent and treatment of opposition
3. Domestic policies and impact
· Lasting from 1966-1967, the Cultural Revolution was initiated by the Communist Party of the Chinese government and led by Chairman Mao Tsedong (Cultural Revolution).
· The Cultural Revolution targeted not only party functionaries, but also “officeholders in the economy, education, and cultural institutions” in an attempt to rid China of bourgeois influences.(Cultural Revolution).
· “It caused great disruptions in the Communist Party itself, as over 70 per cent of government and party leaders at regional and provincial levels were replaced” (Cultural Revolution).
· The public was encouraged to denouce anyone suspected of wavering Communist beliefs (Cultural Revolution).
· “Words of Chairman Mao became the sole rule of conduct, and all established patterns of behaviour became subject to question,” resulting in an overall sense of terror within the public (Cultural Revolution).
· An estimated three million people were denouced and ‘around half a million people died as a consequence of the Revolution” (Cultural Revolution).
· “By 1967, matters had escalated to near anarchy” as fanatical Communist youths, known as the Red Guard, terrorized their neighborhoods, denouncing teachers, parents, and anyone suspected of being beurgious. In 1968, matters became dire and “the military was called in to restore order” (Cultural Revolution).
· Upon Mao’s death, the Cultural Revolution was primarily over (Cultural Revolution).
· “It was primarily an urban phenomenon” and affected mostly those living in cities in China half of China’s urban population (Cultural Revolution).
· For Mao, the revolution was a success, for it accomplished his major goals of reasserting his power within the Communist Party and removing critics of his policies, namely the Great Leap Forward, from the government, “notably State Chairman Liu Shaoqi” (Cultural Revolution).

"Cultural Revolution" A Dictionary of Contemporary World History. Jan Palmowski. Oxford University Press, 2008. Oxford ReferenceOnline. Oxford University Press. Infohio - NOACSC. 30 August 2009 http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t46.e592