Abe Lucey Period 8 Year 1 (subject to minor changes)
Vocabulary Week one Year one

1. Bolshevism
a. Extreme Communists
b. Used Violence to achieve their ends
c. Feared across Europe
d. Gained the largest foothold in Russia
i. Bolsheviks took power during a revolution in 1917 in Petrograd or St. Petersburg, which spread to the rest of Russia[[#_edn1|[i]]] and through a series of events, displaced the ruling government (The Romanov Czars) and created a communist government

2. Self Determination
a. An idea introduced by Woodrow Wilson, which was to give nationalities right to self-government
i. i.e. When the Austro-Hungarian Empire was split up by the Treaty of Versailles, Hungarians living within those borders were given a state of “Hungary”, the same with Austrians who were given a state of Austria.
ii. For the most part this idea failed in the successor states (later elaborated upon) because countries such as Yugoslavia were created, countries with multi-ethnic populations which defeated the purpose.

3. Realpolitik
a. Also referred to as “Realism”
b. In essence, when a man/woman governs out of self-interest rather than ideals.
c. The core idea in realpolitik regards security; everything revolves around security!

4. Reparations
a. Webster Definition: compensation in money, material, labor, etc., payable by a defeated country to another country or to an individual for loss suffered during or as a result of war.
b. In this instance this applies to the countries of Austria, Hungary, and most importantly Germany. It came in the form of multiple billions of marks (Germany’s currency), and crippled the ability of these three countries to restart their economies after the debilitating war.

5. Demilitarize
a. The Webster Definition: to deprive of military character; free from militarism.
b. Demilitarization occurred within the losing nations directly subsequent to WWI.
i. Germany was limited in its number and size of guns and also its army was limited to 150,000 soldiers and its navy to 6 ships larger than 10,000lbs.
ii. Austria was limited to 50,000 soldiers
ii. Hungary was limited to 100,000 soldiers.

6. League of Nations
a. Point XIV or 14 of Woodrow Wilson’s 14 Points. It was to be a body of diplomats or world leaders in order to prevent war in the future by providing a debating grounds in which disputes between countries could be settled before they escalated to war.
b. The United States never joined the league

7. 14 Points[[#_edn2|[ii]]]
a. The main “points” of the 14 points were:
i. All alliances and diplomatic dealings between countries must be done in the public eye.
ii. Freedom of navigation (in particular on the seas)
iii. Economic barriers must, as much as possible, cease to exist and trade equality must be established.
iv. demilitarization to the bare minimum necessary for a country to solely protect themselves, but not enough for a country to be an aggressor (in theory).
v. Self Determination for not only newly created states, but also the colonies of all countries overseas.
xiv. A league of nations had to be established in order to eliminate the future of war. The theory was that all disputes could be settled diplomatically at a central body.

a. The “Kindergarten”[[#_edn3|[iii]]] reasons for WWI, that provide a reference or starting point when discussing the reasons for WWI breaking out.
i. Militarism – Heavy Build up of arms immediately prior to WWI, especially between Germany and England who engaged in a naval arms race until the British created the Dreadnaught.
ii. Alliances – Divided between the Entente (First England, France, and Russia, with America and Italy to be added and Russia dropped during the course of the war) and the Central Powers (First Germany, The Austria-Hungarian Empire and Italy, with Italy to be dropped and The Ottoman Empire be added during the course of the war.)
iii. Imperialism – Most evidently found in the horde of colonies obtained by European powers (most notably England, France, Spain, and Portugal) in The Americas, Africa, Asia, and Oceania.
iv. Nationalism – Surfaced to the forefront of European daily life during the time of Napoleon Bonaparte in the early 1800s. Nationalism is the idea of colloquially “throwing all of ones weight” or heavily supporting your nationality, often associated with ethnic divisions.

9. Treaty of Versailles[[#_edn4|[iv]]]
a. Signed outside Paris, France.
b. Ended WWI
c. Incorporated many of Woodrow Wilson’s Points, but they were diluted significantly.
d. Main points of interest were:
i. Demilitarized the Rhineland of Germany
ii. Alsace-Lorraine was returned to France
iii. The Central Powers returned all land taken in the war
iv. Additional territories were given by Germany to France, Belgium, and the new nations of Czechoslovakia and Poland.
v. The Austria-Hungarian Empire and Ottoman Empire were theoretically dissolved into nationalities, each theoretically given the right to self determinism.
vi. All of the Central Powers’ overseas colonies were to be made into Mandates of the victors (Syria was a French Mandate, Trans-Jordan was a British Mandate, and so on) until they were prepared to self-govern
vii. Punitive damages were assessed to German and whatever the successor of Austria-Hungary was to be (Ultimately it was Austria and Hungary who had to pay along with Germany).
e. It was never ratified by the United States’ Congress.

10. Successor States
a. Poland, Austria, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Syria, Trans-Jordan, Iraq, Kuwait, Palestine, Lebanon, are the main examples of successor states after WWI.
b. they were created under the Woodrow Wilson “Banner” of self determinism but very few ethnic nationalities truly controlled their own government.
i. Poland was ruled by the polish but had heavy Russian populations, and incorporated West Prussia which had a heavy German Populations so Polish dominate Germans and Russians in Poland
ii. Austria and Hungary are two examples where self determinism worked on the whole.
iii. Palestine, Iraq, Kuwait, and Trans-Jordan were ruled by the British under the mandate system British officials dominate local Arab populations
iv. Yugoslavia[[#_edn5|[v]]] was perhaps the largest failure, its major ethnic groups included: Bosnians, Herzegovinians, Croatians, Slovenians, Serbians, Serbians, Montenegrins, and Macedonians. The Serbians Dominated all of the other groups afore mentioned in Yugoslavia.
c. The failure of the Successor States was due to the failure of true self-determinism throughout the countries.

[[#_ednref|[i]]] "October Revolution of 1917." Encyclopedia of Ukraine. Canadian Institute of Ukrainian studies. 03 Sept. 2009 <http://www.encyclopediaofukraine.com/pages/O/C/OctoberRevolutionof1917.htm>.
[[#_ednref|[ii]]] "Avalon Project - President Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points." Avalon Project - Documents in Law, History and Diplomacy. Avalon Project. 03 Sept. 2009 <http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/wilson14.asp>.
[[#_ednref|[iii]]] Quoted from Mr. M. Hinze
[[#_ednref|[iv]]] Schoenherr, Steven. "The Versailles Treaty of June 28, 1919." The Versailles Treaty of June 28, 1919. University of San Diego. 03 Sept. 2009 <http://history.sandiego.edu/gen/text/versaillestreaty/vercontents.html>.
[[#_ednref|[v]]] "Former Yugoslavia | Genocide Studies Program |." Former Yugoslavia | Genocide Studies Program |. Yale University. 03 Sept. 2009 <http://www.yale.edu/gsp/former_yugoslavia/index.html>.