Authoritarianism- A broad term, meaning government by strong non-democratic leadership. Dictatorial regime where there is no real consensus on what kind of strong government and leadership would be established. This is a extreme right wing ideology.

Article 48- It gives the leader (usually the chancellor) emergency power which could make a new group come to power (Nazis) and try it over as a dictatorship. It was a section of the Weimar Constitution and is commonly referred to as one of the documents' main weaknesses.

Paramilitary- A part of the military that is outside the government's hands; citizen soldiers.

November Criminals- Refers to those who signed the November Armistice, and a term of abuse to vilify all those who supported the democratic republic.

White Terror- The "Whites" were seen as the opponents. The 'White Terror refers to the soviets republic in Bavaria.

A State within a state- Where the authority and government of the state are threatened by a rival power base.

Anti-Marxism- Opposition to the ideology of Karl Marx.

Nationalism- Grew from the national spirit to unify Germany in the 19th century. Supported a strong policy to embrace all German-Speakers in eastern Europe.


1) Packet # 3, The Threats to Weimar 1919-1923