• 1) The Treaty of Versailles
    A.The Peacemakers and Their Aims
    1. Victorious Powers had difficulty because they had not formulated clear war aims in 1914
    2. Some Aims:
      1. Germany's aims (extensive and ambitious)
        1. The need to weaken France to a state of dependency on Germany
        2. Mitteleuropa of Germany, France, Austria-Hungary, Poland, and Scandinavia
        3. Plans to push back Russia
        4. Plans to take over a new Eastern Empire, part to form a defense against the new Russia (Vorland), and the rest would be colonized and developed economically by Germany(Kulturland)
        5. Create an enormous African Empire including the Congo, French Equatorial Africa, and parts of west africa
      2. France's Aims
        1. Return of Alsace-Lorraine
        2. Reduction of Germany power by creation of a protective Rhineland Republic
        3. Creation of a new political structure in Germany
        4. Russia given the Straits of Constantinople and Poland (as a reward for its agreement)
      3. Britain's Aims (mainly colonial)
        1. Taking over many of Germany's and Turkey's colonies (shared with France and Russia)
        2. January 1918 Lloyd George spoke of the need to:
          1. Germany and Allies to return to return all occupied areas (Belgium, Serbia, Montenegro, parts of France, Italy, and Romainia
          2. Creation of a Polish State of self-government for the nationalities of Austria-Hungary
          3. Reconsideration of France's 1871 loss of Alsace and Lorraine
      4. The United States' Aims (Wilson's 14 Points)
        1. "Open convenants openly arrived at" - no secrets, no secret obligations, alliances, treaties, etc.
        2. "Absolute freedom of navigation alike in peace and war" - b/c naval rivalry between Britain and Germany was a contribution to the arms race.
        3. Removal, as far as possible, of economic barriers between nations
        4. "armaments would be reduced to the lowest point consistent with domestic safety" - Reduction of weaponry
        5. "An impartial adjustment of all colonial claims"
        6. Evacuation of Russian Territory and the free determination of Russia's own future
        7. Evacuation and Restoration of Belgium
        8. Evacuation and Restoration of French territory and the return of Alsace-Lorraine to france
        9. Readjustment of Italy's boundaries "along clearly recognizable lines of nationality"
        10. Autonomy for the people of Austria-Hungary
        11. Evacuation and Restonration of the Romanian, Serbian, and Montenegrin territory including access to the sea for serbia
        12. Breaking up of the Ottoman Empire, formation on Independent Turkey by areas of Turkish population, other areas "to be given the opportunity for autonomous development." The Straits of Constantinople to be open to all ships.
        13. Creation of an independent Poland in all those areas "indisputably Polish" and for it to have secure access to the sea
        14. League of Nation - "a general association of nations to be formed to afford mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike.
    3. The Terms of the Versailles Treaty
      1. The west bank of the River Rhine and an area 50 kilometers wide on the East bank were Demilitarized. The Entente Powers would man the Western Bank until 1930. Britain and America guaranteed aid to France if attacked by Germany (Senate refused to recognize this when occurred and Britain's promise, which depended America, lapsed as well)
      2. The Saar Basin was to be held be and inter-allied force for 15 years (1st 5- France receives coal mined there)
      3. Germany Armed forces limited. 100,000 men, only 6 battleships over 10000 tons in navy, no submarines or military air craft all "in order to render possible the initiations of a general limitation of the armaments of all nations" (never took place)
      4. France received Alsace and Lorraine, along with 2 million people and 3/4 Germany's iron resources. Germany gave up Eupen, Moresnet, and Malmedy to Belgium and northern Schleswig to Denmark
      5. Germany's colonies confiscated and Mandated.
      6. Germany had to give up land to newly independent Poland, created also from Russia and Austria-Hungary. Poland promised access to the sea (Point13), this made it difficult to draw a boundary since the population of the area was mixes (Danzig in north to Silesia in South). West Prussia and Posen also given to Poland, repudiating the right of self-determination to Germans. Some areas held Plebiscites to decide whether to go to Germany or Poland.
      7. Danzig, largely German but surrounded by Polish areas, posed a problem, so held under the control of the League of Nations.(also Memel). Germany lost 2 million subjects and many minerals as well as having East Prussia separated by a part of Poland (the Poland Corridor)
      8. War Guilt Clause - forced Germany to pay reparations and take responsibility. There was disagreement of Germany's capacity to pay. To Allied leader, the clause was a technical device to justify the their charging and enormous amount. Fixed the guilt for war on Germany in a moral way. Interpretation repeated so often it became accepted by most Europeans in the inter-war period.
  • The Central and East European Settlements
The abdication of the last Hapsburg Emperor, Karl, on 11 November 1918, led to the separation of Austria and Hungary. Both Charger reparations although both claimed not to be the successor of the Empire.
    1. The Treaty of St Germain
      1. Held the new Austrian Republic to be successors of the Hapsburg Empire,
      2. charged reparations,
      3. forced army limit to 30 000.
      4. Lost over 15 million people and almost all industrial area.
      5. Forbidden from economic union with Germany unless the L of N gave consent.
    2. The Treaty of Trianon
      1. Signed between Entente leaders and Hungarian Gov't of Admiral Horthy of 4 June, 1920
      2. The Gov't also held as successor to Hapsburg Empire
      3. Forced to pay reparations
      4. Limit army to 35 000
      5. Forced to hand over territory to neighbors ( overall lost 3.4 of territory and more that 60% of people)
    3. The Treaty of Neuilly
      1. 27 November 1919, Bulgaria signed giving much land to surrounding neighbors.
      2. Bulgaria paid reparations of almost $500 000
      3. Limit Bulg. Army to 20 000
    4. The Treaties of Sevrés and Lausanne
      1. Treaty of Sevrés
        1. Accepted in August 1920 by Turkish Sultan
        2. Gave up all claims to non-Turkish territory
        3. The terms were overthrown as a result of the revival of a Turkish nationalist movement (led by Mustafa Kemal)
      2. Treaty of Lausanne
        1. Signed July '23 by Kemal
        2. Some territory returned to Turkey
        3. The straits remained demilitarized, but Turkey gained the right to close them to enemy warships in times of war.
        4. Foreign supervision of Turkish finances and special privileges to foreign Gov'ts and individuals ended.




Bibliography:
Wolfson, Robert, and John Laver. Years of Change: European History 1890 - 1990.
London: Hodder Murray, 2001. Print.