Origin and nature of authoritarian and single-party states
· Conditions that produced authoritarian and single-party states
· Emergence of leaders: aims, ideology, support
· Totalitarianism: the aim and the extent to which it was achieved
1. Select two leaders of single-party states, each chosen from a different region, and explain how and why the conditions of their state helped them to rise to power.
2. Analyze the conditions that enabled one left-wing leader to become the ruler of a single-party state.


Comparison Mao and Stalin:
Comparison:
· Both Mao and Stalin were both left-wing leaders who created Communist states where they had complete control over their people.
· They used tactics that affected the economic, social, and political lives of all the citizens of their country.
· Although Stalin succeeded a communist leader in Russia, and Mao established communism in China, both leaders built an empire that was entirely unique form previous leaders.
· Mao and Stalin used their leadership to gain complete control by industrializing and using fearful tactics to gain the utmost support.
· Also, in both countries if Mao or Stalin were suspicious of anyone who opposed their regime, they made sure to have them eliminated.
Contrast:
· In Mao’s collectivization policy allowed the landlords’ holdings to be divided up among the peasants, which was a step backward from his ideal of a socialized peasantry. Thus, Mao’s collectivization differed from Stalin perhaps because he had learnt from Stalin’s disastrous attempt at this rapid collectivization.
· Additionally, near the end of their regime, Mao had seen the disastrous outcomes of Stalin’s reign so he eased up a little on his policies so that he would be able to leave a somewhat good legacy on his country.
· Also, Mao led a revolution that took over the government of China, where Stalin made his way up in the ranks after Lenin’s death. Thus, it took Mao a lot more time and effort to gain his absolute power, where Stalin was able to gain power pretty quickly.



Establishment of authorities and single party states
· Methods: force, legal
· Form of government, (left- and right-wing) ideology
· Nature, extent and treatment of opposition
1. Analyzing the ideology of (a) one right-wing ruler, and (b) one left wing ruler.
2. Select one leader of a single-party state, and explain why there was opposition to his rule, and why the opposition succeeded or failed.
3. Discuss (a) the ideology of, and (b) the support for, one right wing ruler of a single-party state.
4. Evaluate the methods used by either Peron or Nasser to maintain power. (for our purposes, you will select any two leaders from different regions)





Domestic policies and impact
· Structure and organization of government and administration
· Political, economic, social and religious policies
· Role of education, the arts, the media, propaganda
· Status of women, treatment of religious groups and minorities
1. Compare and contrast the religious policies of Hitler and Peron.
2. In 1952 Kenyatta said, “God said this is our land, land in which we flourish as a people”. In what ways did the people of Kenya (a) benefit, and (b) suffer from Kenyatta’s policies?
3. To what extent were the social and economic policies of one of the following successful: Mao, Nasser, Stalin?
4. Compare and contrast the domestic policies of two of the following: Castro, Kenyatta, Stalin. (for our purposes, you will select any two leaders from different regions)
5. Examine the role of education in one single-party or authoritarian state.
6. In what ways, and to what extent, was propaganda important in the rise and ruler of Hitler?


Synthesis: Mao and Stalin Domestic Policies
I. Cult of Personality / Consolidating Power
a. Both consolidate power complete about themselves and build up a cult of personality, brain-washing citizens with propaganda praising their ideals and demonizing others.
i. Mao’s Little Red Book, pamphlets, posters, promotional, etc.
ii. Mao’s Red Guard – battalions of students and later young loyalists who weed out any opposition, or perceived opposition, and promote Mao’s ideals.
iii. Stalin is adulated in pamphlets, books, films, etc.
iv. Stalin enforces with secret police, KGB.
b. Both leaders were paranoid about support. Mao felt the need to constantly make up for lost popularity, leading to plans like the Cultural Revolution. Mao had less of a prevalent role in leading – he demanded alignment, of course, but he was less charismatic. Stalin, too, was incredibly paranoid, leading to purges of his supporters that extended down to the very local levels.
II. Ideals
a. Both promote Communist ideals, but neither create a Communist state as Karl Marx had envisioned. Rather, they create totalitarian states building up themselves.
III. Economic Plans
a. Both initiate economic lands oriented at boosting the industrial and agricultural spheres.
i. Mao’s Great Leap Forward was his attempt to break away from the Soviet model. Focuses on decentralizing economy instating communes of farmers and reinvigorating revolutionary spirit.
ii. Stalin’s Five Year Plans, while featuring agricultural collectivization, had a greater focus on industrial build-up. Often drew on labor from Gulags.
b. Both plans fail. While the Soviet Union did industrialize, it was still socially backwards – the people lived in abject poverty. Mao’s Great Leap was just a failure.
IV. Social Impact
a. Both Mao and Stalin’s polices resulted in millions of deaths, the precise figures of which are unclear, but they range in the tens of millions.
i. Attempts at making farming communes / collectivization result in terrible inefficiency and forced quotas that cause wide-spread famine.
ii. Many die in repressive campaigns, with dissenters being executed.
b. Repression of any opposition…
c. Control of social institutions: Both control the arts, schools, literature… Intense censorship to assure everything conforms to their deals.

Similarities and differences between Stalin and Mao:
I. Similarities:
A. Structure: Both Stalin and Mao took complete control of their countries and while there were other elected groups such as the Supreme Soviet and National People Congress in China, they had relatively little power compared to Stalin and Mao. In each state, the Communist party dominated all aspects of the government and daily life
B. Purges: Both Stalin and Mao utilized purges to eliminate all opposition to their power. Anyone who openly opposed the leaders was either executed or sent to labor camps. This allowed each leader to retain ultimate control over the country.
C. Economic Policy: Both leaders set forth a series of economic changes that were aimed toward expanding heavy industry. Stalin and Mao both established five year plans that were concentrated on expanding the coal, steel, iron and oil industry.
D. Agricultural changes: Collectivization of farms was a major goal for both Stalin and Mao. Small inefficient farms were grouped into larger, more effective farms.
E. Social: Both leaders sought to control education and art so that everyone respected and learned about Stalin/Mao. Oppositional religious groups were persecuted. Education and media was centered around glorifying the leader.
II. Differences:
A. Economic: Stalin focused on making economic and agricultural changes to Soviet Russia, while Mao focused more on cultural changes in China. Stalin set forth three five year plans to expand industry because Russia was behind. Mao created the little red book created guidelines for the people in China to follow, which established the Mao cult.
B. Terror: Both leaders used purges, but Stalin used terror to establish authority in the Soviet Union. He targeted top officers, the educated class, and the kulaks.
C. Great Leap forward: This was Mao’s attempt to separate China from Soviet style communism. He introduced communes, which were different from collectivized farms.