Reactionary groups in Germany were those who wanted to return back to the Kaiser and his government structure. These groups are ultra-conservative, and were against the Fascist movement and especially the Spartacists and other extreme leftist movements. Many of the leaders of the Reactionary groups were military leaders, including Erich Ludendorff. The regional government of Bavaria was composed of mainly reactionary officials, and it contained many reactionary groups.

The objectives of these parties were to put the Kaiser back in power and establish Germany as what it had been before it became a democracy. The other goals of Reactionary groups, was to keep control of the society, create a large military, and promote big businesses. The people of the Reactionary party were also considered nationalists.

An example of a reactionary group was the German Workers’ Party, which was founded by Anton Drexler. In 1919, Adolf Hitler tied himself with this party, and had become its leader within two years.

Reactionary parties were split apart due to regional and policy differences through 1919-1924. During this time was when reactionary/nationalists groups tried to overthrow the Weimar Republic, but they ended in failure. The first attempt of a nationalist takeover was the Kapp Putsch, which occurred in 1920. The Kapp Putsch was led by Wolfgang Kapp and General Luttwitz, and they ordered 12,000 troops to march through Berlin and takeover the governmental buildings to set up a militaristic government based on the ideals of the reactionary groups. The Kapp Putsch failed due to lack of support and authority, and so Kapp and his nationalist government fled.

The second major attempt of a takeover by reactionary/nationalist groups, was the Munich Beer Hall Putsch. This event took place in 1923, and was led by Hitler and his nationalist friends. Hitler and his group marched into a beer hall in Munich and declared a ‘national revolution’. This rally was soon put down by police and armed forces. This event was key to Hitler’s Nazi takeover of Germany.

Reactionary groups had taken the purpose of establishing the old form of government with the Kaiser, when really they were paving the way for the new form of government to take over.[[#_ftn1|[1]]]

[[#_ftnref1|[1]]] Layton, Geoff. Weimar and the Rise of Nazi German. 3rd Edition. London: Hodder, 2005.