Jewish Immigration Within Europe
-Jews migrated from Palestine voluntarily in the Classical period, forming merchant classes around the Mediterranean Basin.
-In the Roman Empire, Jews played an important role in the economy as traders, financiers, goldsmiths...
-Jews gradually began to loose their rights as citizens, and were limited to certain professions, as a result of religious antagonism against them.
-Beginning in Italy in 1290, Jews were expelled from many countries including France, and Spain, and were limited to living in certain designated areas known as "ghettos"
-Many Jews left western Europe, and moved to the Ottoman Empire and Eastern Europe, specifically Greater Lithuania. The Jewish community in Poland eventually became the largest in the world.
-In western European countries, Jews assimilated into the capitalist economies, however, in eastern European countries, the slow rate of industrialization and hostile political/religious conditions led to dislocation of Jews in those areas
-In Russia, ever since 1791, Jews were restricted to a region between the Black Sea and Baltic (known as Pale Settlement)
-In this region, Jews lived in poor towns known as Shtetls
- Jews continued to become the scapegoat for the Czarist government and the Orthodox Church
-By the year of 1850, Jews accounted for 2.3 million of the Russian population, and reached 5 million by the end of the 19th century
-Following the assassination of Czar Alexander II, the Russian Government sponsored restrictions, massacres, and persecutions of the Jews in Russia
-This persecution of Jews within Russia lead to massive immigration of Jews to the United States at the end of the 19th century (1 million Jews fled to US by 1900, and 2.3 million were in America by 1914)

Bickerton, Ian J, and Carla L Klausner. “The Birth of Modern Zionism.” A History of the Arab-Israeli Conflict. 5th ed. New Jersey: Pearson Education, 1995. Print.

Arab Immigration

Increased Jewish Immigration into Palestine lead to the Arab Rebellion (1936-1939)
-"Began with rather spontaneous acts of violence by a religiously and nationalistically motivated group inspired by Sheikh Izz ad-Din al-Qassam" (BK 51).