What was it?
The National Pact was an unwritten agreement formed in 1943, after many meetings between Lebanon's president, Khuri (Maronite) and Lebanon's first prime minister, Riyah as Sulh (Sunni)

Why was it created?
The Christians were worried that they would soon be overpowered by the Muslims in Lebanon and surrounding countries. The Muslims also feared Western Leadership.

Terms of the Pact:
1. The Maronites agreed that they wouldn't seek aid from foreign countries.
2. The Maronites also recognized Lebanon as an "Arab" country rather than a "Western" country.
3. The Muslims would not try to unite with Syria.
4. The president of Lebanon was to always be Maronite.

Power Dispersal:
President: Maronite Christian
Prime Minister: Sunni
Speaker of the House: Shi'ia
Deputy Speaker of the House: Orthodox Christian

The National Pact created a ratio of 6 Christian members to 5 Muslim members. This ensured that there would always be a Christian majority. This ratio of 6:5 would create further complications in the future when the populations fluctuate and Muslims become the majority.

The pact also created a confessional democracy within Lebanon. This is a result of the distribution of power solely through religious affiliations. The purpose of this confessional democracy was to defuse the different religious beliefs that operated in Lebanon. This proved to be a failure and resulted in only focusing more on religious divisions and greatly divided the country internally.


"The National Pact." U.S. Library of Congress. Web. 29 Aug. 2009.

Bickerton, Ian J., and Carla L. Klausner. A History of the Arab-Israeli Conflict. Upper Saddle River:
Pearson Education, Inc., 2007. Print.