- Problems of unification: (1890)
o Many Italians lived outside of Italy
o Disliked new central state, new taxes & laws
o Pope refused to recognize new state
o People poor (south especially), emigrated to US
o Government short lived and unstable

- Crispi
o Responded with repression and suspension of parliament because of violence
o Strengthen links with Germany and Austria-Hungary, joined triple Alliance of 1882
o Crispi resigned after defeat by Abyssinia resulted in violence and weak government

- Giolitti
o Industrial production and trade expanded
o 1911: annexation of Tripoli (Turkish Empire)
o Many parts of Italy declared themselves communes or republics
o Strike against taxation and Giolitti’s government fell

- Italy and WWI
o Outbreak of war- May 1915 neutral
o 1915 Germany persuaded Austria to accept demands for the cession of lands
o Traty of London allies agreed in return for military they would fight against Austria & Italy have lands

- 1919-21 (Political History)
o Fiume incident, people prepared to take law in own hands and government let them
o Socialist Party (PSI) gained strength
o 1919 joined Third International
o Catholics could participate in elections alternative to Socialism
o Fascio di Combattimento leader was Mussolini, fascist party, cheap way of curbing socialism

- 1921-22 Fascist power
o Only alternative to Bolshevism
o Fascist won control of many cities
o King and army against fascism
o War vets against too
o March on Rome: little significance
o Mussolini soon government was theirs, and became Prime Minister of Italy

- Consolidation of Power
o MVSN, volunteer militia for national security, private army of 30,000
o 1924- Fascist won 2/3 votes
o Murder of Socialist Matteotti
o Legge Fascistissime, further controls imposed
o May 1928, electoral law

- Little opposition to Mussolini
o Brought Italians money, jobs, stability
o Abroad admired by Churchill and Lloyd George
o Able to govern country better than before
o Opposition regarded each other as more of a threat to fascism

- Fascism in theory and practice
o Programme of 1921: no proposals about constitution, no wealth tax, no attack on church
o 2 years later: men of property
o Promised to make Italy great again
o Nazi-style measures in Italy
o Anti-semetic laws for Jews

- Relations with church
o Lateran Treaties of Feb. 11, 1929, restored Popes right to rule Vatican City
o Catholicism state religion

- Education and leisure
o Fascist culture subject, mixed schools ended
o Textbooks scrutinized, some banned
o Dopoavoro organization

- Economic History
o Economy reorganized by Mussolini to increase influence of the state without destroying capitalism
o Economy orgainsed into “Corporate State”, each occupation form 2 syndicates which would meet separately
o Other powers saw links with communism and boom and bust nature of capitalism
o Disadvantages: workers lost right to bargain and use of strike
o Advantages: chaos of post war avoided, helped ease unemployment

- Mussolini’s economic policy achieved
o Propaganda campaign “Battle for Grain” distributed gold, silver, and bronze starts to most productive farmers
o Production of wheat increased by 50%
o Small # of wealthy landowners remained in control of huge # of poor laborers

- Italian industry
o First left in private hands
o 1933 Institute for the Reconstruction of Industry, state took over direct control of many banks and heavy industries to help economy through depression
o Communications encouraged
o Nation was as powerful nation by populus, determined to increase population
o Did nothing to solve traditional issues of economy: poverty
o After depression economy shifted to military and semi military production

- European policies 1922-1935
o 5 Italians assassinated when working for conference of Ambassadors
o Greek government full apology and 50 million lire compensation, but agreed on with draw of forces in exchange for 50 million lire
o 1924 Pact of Rome signed with Yugoslavia, Italy received Fiume suburb of Susak
o Treaties with Albania established Italy influence
o 1927 treaty of friendship signed with Hungary and 1930 with Austria
o 1925 signed treaties guaranteeing Franco-German and Belgo-German frontiers
o 4 powers pact: Italy Germany Frace Britain, replacing league

- Abyssinian Crisis
o Italy signed treaty of Friendship, but ruler didn’t want his country to be dominated by modern power
o Hoare-Laval Pact: Italy received northern and southern thirds to add to Eritea

- European policies 1935-1939
o 1936 Nyon Conference discuss patrolling rights, Italy granted to patrol a zone
o Mussolini organized invasion of Albania in April 1939
o Pact of Steel, Italy committed to join Germany in any war
o Italy not ready for war when Hitler informed plans attack on Poland

- Italy during WWII
o Attacked France and Greece
o Mussolini increased dependence on Hitler
o Invasion of Sicily 1943, end of power
o 1945 Mussolini captured and Killed