Eastern Front: Russia
  • Ottomans start war by attacking Russia through the black sea.
  • Ottomans were far inferior when it came to war planning i.e. food/clothing.
  • While always a bad idea to attack Russia during the winter, especially poor strategy when you have improper supplies such as the Ottomans in this circumstance
  • Ottomans lacked strong leadership to put supplies in the right spots at the right times.
  • Futile attack-- against Russian winter, had the wrong uniforms, major lack of communication.
  • Russians thoroughly defeat the Ottomans.
  • Total Losses:
  • Ottomans: 50,000 died or injured
  • Russians: 100,000 dead or injured

  • Western Front: Dardanelles and Gallipoli
  • Gallipoli was an onslaught for allied forces in particular the Australians
  • Britain wanted control of the straights
  • Ian Hamilton wanted to capture Istanbul-- Turkish forces taken by surprise.
  • Turks push British off the ridge-- Turkey has critical position on top of the ridge.
  • Aug. 6-- Britain brings more troops in, little resistance, group fails.
  • Turks counter-attack with Kamal- Britain driven back, Allies fail to advance.
  • Disease-->Slow Death-->Britain and Anzacs withdraw from Gallipoli.
  • Mustafa Gunal leads to victory in Dardanelles.
  • Total losses: 500,000
  • Anzac Cove/Sula Bay
Southern Front: Suez/Palestine
  • Ottomans attempt to surprise the British by crossing the Suez Canal, however they don't know how to use the German pontoon boats given to them so they are unable to cross.
  • British and Turks have it out-- begin open fire, and Turks are finally driven away, so Britain maintains their hold on the Suez Canal.
  • Britain then sends many troops to Suez, so the Turks don't attempt again.
  • The British attack cross the desert in response, however they are smart about it. They build rail road lines and water lines as they cross so they can be well supplied.
  • The British slowly fight their way up to Jerusalem by 1917, but they forced to withdraw 90,000 troops to the western front.
  • Turks have German assistance.

South-Eastern Front: Iraq/Mesopotamia
  • Britain and France have oil in Iran, and want to invade Iraq to make sure oil keeps flowing out. Also, Britain's navy had just been switched from running on coal to running on oil.
  • clear out Turks and Ottomans in oil fields.
  • Sept 28-- They attack early morning behind enemy lines, and want to capture Baghdad.
  • Turks are tremendously mobile and agile. They surround the Allies and force them out.
  • All British attacks made to break Turkish siege fail-- Townsend fails and surrenders.
  • Soon after the surrender, Townsend gathers up more troops and supplies and goes back. He then defeats the Turks on this front.
  • March 11, 1917-- British conquer Baghdad with no issue at all.
  • British then go for Gaza to get the well-- trying to break the Turkish line.
  • Allenby (Egyptian Command Force), is 1st rate commander. Turks lose Beersheba to British, then British go for Gaza and destroy the Turks.
  • The taking of Gaza is the beginning of the end of the Ottoman Empire.

  • Arab Revolt
  • London doesn't want Arabs to be completely independent-- they want British influence. So they supply Hussein with gold, guns and other weapons in exchange for help with the revolt.
  • Arabs revolt against the Turks-- however the Arabs are unorganized and undisciplined. They lacked effective leadership.
  • Lawrence loved targeting the Hijaz Railroad-- he was a genius of Guerrilla Warfare.
  • Lawrence would make repairable attacks as opposed to completely annihilating the railroad, so the Turks had to pour money and time into repairing the railroad instead of just giving up on it. Slowly drains Turkish funds.
  • Prince Faizl becomes Britain's favorite Arab leader, more Arabs join Faizl's army.
  • Hussein declares revolt against Turks in hope that McMahon and Britain follow through on their promise of giving the Arabs their own nation after the war.
  • Hussein and the Arabs tie up 30,000 Ottoman troops, key part of allied victory in Palestine.

Works Cited
Blood and Oil: The Middle East in World War I. 2006. DVD. Inecom.