Civil War and Its Consequences
-The Lebanese Army fragmented into separate militias making the divisions in Lebanon even deeper
-March 1976: the Christian militias were on the defensive so Syrian armies intervened
-October 1976: a cease-fire was called and Syrian troops were sanctioned as Arab Deterrent Forces and stayed for the next 29 years
-Violence remained high and the PLO remained in south Lebanon

-Israel met with Pierre Gemayel (Phalange leader)
-Israel supported the Lebanese Front (coalition of 4 Christian militias) with arms
-PLO attacks on Israel increase when it seemed like the United States was ignoring their cause as Israel and Egypt became to negociate
-March 1978: PLO killed bus of 30 Israelis --> Israel invades Lebanon

"Operation Peace for Galilee"
- Before the invasion, Israel responded to PLO rocket attacks with air strikes on Palestinian refugee camps
- Cease fire lasted until spring of 1982 until Operation Peace for Galilee
- Israel invaded Lebanon on June 6, 1982

  • Goal: eliminate PLO in southern Lebanon and create secure area north of Israel's boarder and restore "legitimate" government with Bashir Gemayel in power
  • Spark was the nearly fatal shooting on June 3rd of Shlomo Argov, Israel's ambassador in London.

- Troops continued to advance north towards Beirut
- Shelled Beirut for 2 months before entering West Beirut on August 14th
- By Sept. 1st the PLO evacuation was virtually complete
- Bashir was assassinated on Sept. 10th
  • Israelis reentered West Beirut to "keep the peace"
  • They allowed Christian Phalangists to enter sabra and Shatila and massacre hundred's of Palestinians (as an act of revenge), forcing Ariel Sharon to resign.

"The Israeli invasion, then, not only set in motion a train of events that further complicated and worsened the situation in Lebanon but that also failed to achieve its own objectives."


Bickerton, Ian J, and Carla L Klausner. A Concise History of the Arab-Israeli Conflict. 4th ed. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2005.