The Palestinians and the PLO After 1967
- The 1967 war gave the Palestinians under Israeli control a new sense of nationalism. For the first time since the creation of Israel there was actual hope that the Palestinians may be able to shape their own government, provided there was a settlement with Israel.
- Prior to the war the other Arab states treated the Palestinians as refugees, the best many could hope for was to become a citizen of Jordan (the other Arab states didn’t even offer them citizenship, Syria felt that it would be a recognition of Israel).
- The PLO was formed in 1964 which served as an umbrella group for various guerilla groups.
  • Fatah became the largest and most popular Palestinian organization because it was not linked to any one Arab country and lack of specific ideology. Some members were Muslims who equated the national cause with a religious cause.
  • All PLO factions rejected the West
  • Splinter groups like PFLP and DFLP initiated terrorists attacks with airplane hijackings in 1968
  • There was much diversity over the question of ideology within the PLO
PLO and Arab States
-Egypt prevented the Palestinians from operating within its territory
- Syria and Iraq sponsored commando units.
-The PLO became a state within Jordan then caused disruption
  • Palestinians hijacked three airplanes to Amman in Sept. 1970 and blew them up on the ground, making the King look powerless
  • Jordanian army killed 3,000 Palestinian fedayeen and turned back Syrian tanks
- With the help of Israel, at the request of the USA, Hussein regained control and by July 1971 Hussein expelled PLO terrorists from Jordan (many went to Lebanon)
  • This caused the formation of the terrorist group Black September, who was responsible for the death of 11 Israeli athletes at the 1972 Olympic games

Bickerton, Ian J, and Carla L Klausner. A Concise History of the Arab-Israeli Conflict. 4th ed. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2005.