Section A:
(140)
To what extent did the manner in which the Iranian revolution of 1978-1979 was carried out influence the rise of Islamic radicalism in the subsequently founded government?
The purpose of this investigation will be to assess the extent of the scenario expressed in the question above. The main body of the investigation, will provide a juxtaposition of the pre- and post-revolution Iran with a more in depth analysis of the revolution years, and the way in which the protests, and the response to the protests, and the leaders that formed those protests that displaced the Shah contributed to the political climate change subsequent to the revolution. Two sources, Modern Iran Since 1921, and a personal interview with Ali Hussein Muhammad—a veteran of the Iran-Iraq war—will be assessed with regards to their origin, purpose, value, and limitation.
Section B:
(701)
Iran in the mid 1900s was a “place of many peoples looking for a common force”[[#_ftn1|[1]]]. Iran in the 1950s and 1960s was a place of factions. The country was split between the Royalists Nationalists, the Communists, and the religious leaders, all of whom pushed for different measures. Iran in 1951 saw the election of Mohammed Mossaddeq to the position of Prime Minister. Mohammed Mossaddeq was the leader of the left leaning National Front, the nationalist party of Iran. His, and by extension the nations major objectives were “less a…rigorous ideological platform and more…[the] ideas of self-determination, nationhood, and anti-imperialism”[[#_ftn2|[2]]]. The nationalist party under Dr. Mossaddeq nationalized the oil industry[[#_ftn3|[3]]] causing great turmoil in international relations with Britain who responded by placing a ban on oil exports from Iran. The Nationalist party had gained a considerable amount of assistance from the support of Ayatollah Kashani[[#_ftn4|[4]]] who in turn desired a heavy Islamic influence in the Nationalist Front movement. This religious desire—when introduced to the public—was met with a “lukewarm” feeling as “Iranians were attracted by the argument that their struggle [was] against Britain…[but] were less enamored with Kashani’s attempt to integrate the struggle within a wider Islamic context”[[#_ftn5|[5]]]. Even the pan-Islam oriented “Movement of the East” had a “reception abroad as well as at home [that was] modest.”[[#_ftn6|[6]]]
After the Anglo-American backed coup against the nationalist party was successful in 1953, the Shah of Iran[[#_ftn7|[7]]] appointed a new Prime Minister General Zahedi to replace Dr. Mossaddeq[[#_ftn8|[8]]]. Subsequent to this change The Shah gained increased amounts of power and attempted to consolidate it by consolidating the “traditional pillars of society…[and] his control over the armed forces.”[[#_ftn9|[9]]] In 1975 the Shah further sought to reestablish total control of the nation creating a one party system of government. The “Resurgence Party” as the new hegmond of the one party system attempted to “reduce the role of Islam in daily life…[by] glorifying the monarchy at the expense of Islamic norms of identity.”[[#_ftn10|[10]]] This all-encompassing crackdown on the opposition gave great strength to the Shah and was continued until the election of Jimmy Carter to the U.S. Presidency. The Shah was told by the U.S. to “Liberalize his regime”[[#_ftn11|[11]]] and did so, ultimately allowing the opposition to come out openly against his policies.
In the end of 1978 and the start of 1979 the first protests that would mark the beginning of the Iranian revolution and by extension the end of the Shah’s power began in Qom as a response to a “scandalous and far-fetched attack on Khomeini[[#_ftn12|[12]]].”[[#_ftn13|[13]]] In response to these demonstrations the Shah sent “Army units [who] forcefully broke up [the demonstrators].”[[#_ftn14|[14]]] In Islamic culture it is traditional to mourn the loss of loved ones 40 days after the time of death. The deaths and subsequent mourning response “gave [the revolution] a decidedly Islamic coloring”[[#_ftn15|[15]]]. The bulk of the subsequent protests occurred in the time traditionally marked for mourning the death of Imam Husayn[[#_ftn16|[16]]] this was an attempt to put the “antiregime protest firmly within a religious framework.” The protesters emulated the martyr Husayn by putting on white robes signifying that they were ready to be killed in the name of their cause. 700 protesters were killed during the protests but by the 10th day 2 million people marched on Tehran. The Shah was forced on an “extended vacation” on January 16 1979[[#_ftn17|[17]]]. Grand Ayatollah Khomeini as he was now called “arrived in triumph” to Tehran, assuming partial control of the Government there[[#_ftn18|[18]]].
Subsequent to the pseudo-abdication of the Shah there was a period of confusion over the leadership of the government, until the Constitution was approved by referendum in late 1979. This Constitution marked the end of “Iran[[#_ftn19|[19]]]” and the beginning of “The Islamic Republic of Iran.” The Constitution altered the Majlis[[#_ftn20|[20]]] from a “National Consultative Assembly” to the “Islamic Consultative Assembly”[[#_ftn21|[21]]]. The Constitution also had several religious articles added to it. Under Article 4, “Laws must be based on Islamic Criteria”[[#_ftn22|[22]]]. Under article 177 “The Islamic nature of the system cannot be amended or changed in the Constitution.”[[#_ftn23|[23]]]Under Article 2 the ICA “cannot enact laws against Islamic Principles” [[#_ftn24|[24]]]
Section C:
(396)
Muhammad, Ali H. "Mindsets of Iranian Citizens Pre- and Post- the 1979 Iranian Revolution." Personal interview. 20 June 2010.
The origin of this work was an Iranian guide in the Iranian city of Esfahan in July 20, 2010. There are several major values to this source. Mr. Muhammad, or “Johannes”[[#_ftn25|[25]]] was born, and lived for several years under the reign of the shah. By extension he lived through the Revolution of 1979 and has experienced the change in mindsets of civilians from the time of the shah to the post revolutionary period. Another pertinent value is Mr. Muhammad’s service in the Iranian Army during the Iran Iraq war of 1980-1988. Subsequent to the Iran-Iraq war Mr. Muhammad has been working as a tour guide for westerners as part of the governmental mandate for domestic guides with foreign tourists. The purpose of the interview conducted was to examine a primary source’s opinions on the change of the Iranian mindset over time, taking into account the Iranian revolution and the populace’s widespread support for it. Unfortunately this interview has evidently been done in a retrospective fashion allowing for the limiting confounding variable of potential mis-remembering. Additionally, as this guide was a governmental employee, and was a veteran of the Iran-Iraq war, it is likely that bias has been introduced. The second limitation however is mitigated by the fact that bias is desired from this source, as bias of the population can be used as part of what is being studied through this historical Investigation.
Ansari, Ali M. Modern Iran since 1921: the Pahlavis and after. London: Pearson Education, 2003. Print.
The origin of this source is Dr. Ali M. Ansari, a professor at St. Andrews University. He obtained his doctorate from University of London’s Oriental and African Studies Department. The purpose of this source is to provide an accurate account of Iran in the mid 1900s in order to examine the pre-revolutionary Iran. Herein lies the value of this source as well. The ability of this source to have insight into the pre-revolution Iran allows for an appropriate juxtaposition and analysis of the differences between the pre- and post-revolution Iran to take place. A limitation of this author is that he has been widely published only in the Western World, and as such could have a bias in favor of the Shah. This limitation is amplified when where he learned his history and where he teaches (United Kingdom) is noted. This bias could be mitigated by the extensive use of cited primary Persian documentary sources, Persian newspapers and journals, and secondary Persian sources.




[[#_ftnref|[1]]] Muhammad, Ali H. "Mindsets of Iranian Citizens Pre- and Post- the 1979 Iranian Revolution." Personal interview. 20 June 2010.

[[#_ftnref|[2]]] Ansari, Ali M. Modern Iran since 1921: the Pahlavis and after. London: Pearson Education, 2003. Print. Page 114.

[[#_ftnref|[3]]] The AIOC or Anglo-Iranian Oil Company was officially changed into the NIOC or National Iranian Oil Company in 1951 by a vote of the Iranian Parliament.

[[#_ftnref|[4]]] Ayatollah Kashani was the Leader of Shiia Islam within Iran.

[[#_ftnref|[5]]] Ansari 119

[[#_ftnref|[6]]] Ibid

[[#_ftnref|[7]]] At this time Mohammed Reza.

[[#_ftnref|[8]]] Ansari 124

[[#_ftnref|[9]]] Ansari 126

[[#_ftnref|[10]]] Cleveland, William L. "The Iranian Revolution and the Resurgence of Islam." A History of the Modern Middle East. Boulder, CO: Westview, 2000. 410-35. Print.

[[#_ftnref|[11]]] Cleveland 412

[[#_ftnref|[12]]] Khomeini is the name of the official new Ayatollah, the future leader of the Iranian Revolution. Khomeini would later obtain the title: Grand Ayatollah Ruhollah Moosavi Khomeini, or Supreme Leader of Iran.

[[#_ftnref|[13]]] Cleveland 414

[[#_ftnref|[14]]] Cleveland 415

[[#_ftnref|[15]]] Ibid

[[#_ftnref|[16]]] This is a ten-day period during Muharram.

[[#_ftnref|[17]]] This “extended vacation” lasted the remainder of his life; he died in this exile in Egypt just over a year later.

[[#_ftnref|[18]]] Cleveland 417

[[#_ftnref|[19]]] Referring to the Iran governed by the Shah

[[#_ftnref|[20]]] According to Modern Iran Since 1921 this is the name for the Parliament of Iran.

[[#_ftnref|[21]]] Cleveland xi

[[#_ftnref|[22]]] "FRIDE - The Relationship between Sharia and the Rule of Law in Iran." The Relationship Between Sharia and the Rule of Law in Iran. FRIDE - Fundación Para Las Relaciones Internacionales Y El Diálogo Exterior, 8 Feb. 2006. Web. 19 July 2010. <http://www.fride.org/publication/164/the-relationship-between-sharia-and-the-rule-of-law-in-iran>.

[[#_ftnref|[23]]] Ibid

[[#_ftnref|[24]]] Ibid

[[#_ftnref|[25]]] Mr. Ali Hussein Muhammad asked that he be called by the name “Johannes” while we followed him throughout our travels.